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Module 8: Science and Math

Science and Math... building confidence and maximising achievement
Science and Math are essential subjects and can be difficult for some learners where spatial awareness and tactile diagrams are slowly introduced. Using the Braillenote Touch learners can adapt to Math Braille and achieve high-level results whilst working in real time. Start to learn Math Braille by using the symbol selector or get creative with your formulas to create real-time Graphs which can then be presented in tactile form for proofreading before printing or embossing.

Download the module in Word format

1. Understanding KeyMath Modes

2. Saving and Opening KeyMath documents

3. Inserting Math directly into a KeyWord document

4. Inserting Math symbols and signs direclty into a KeyMath document

5. Inserting a Graph into a KeyWord document

6. Generating a tactile preview of a graph

7. Exporting a graph as a visual image

8. Embossing your visual graph

9. Customising a Graph

10. Importing a Graph

11. Using Math templates

12. Performing basic calculations in KeyCalc

13. Performing advanced calculations in KeyCalc

1. Understanding KeyMath modes

KeyMath has two distinct modes of use: Math typesetting mode, and Graphing calculator mode.

Math typesetting mode is used for entering standard linear mathematical equations and expressions, which can then be exported into KeyWord documents.

Graphing calculator mode is used for creating mathematical graphs via the input of mathematical functions.

To switch between these available modes press Enter with G, you will now get a notification telling you which mode you are now using.

Note: You can also switch between modes by entering the context menu by either pressing space with M, or using the square context menu located on the front of the BrailleNote Touch. Once there, press the letter T to move your focus to the “Toggle rendering mode” option, and activate with Enter or a cursor router key. You will now be prompted the mode you have switched to.

2. Saving a KeyMath document

When you have typed the desired Maths Braille into your KeyMath document, it is possible to save the document so that you can return to it later in KeyMath.

To save your current KeyMath document, follow these steps:

With your document open, press Space with S.

You will be prompted “Edit box, enter file name”. Your document will be saved into the Documents folder of your Touch’s internal storage by default. The document will be saved as a Braille file with the “.brl” file extension.

If you want your KeyMath document to be saved in the default Documents folder, simply type the desired name for your new document, and then press Enter.

Alternatively, if you want to select a different folder for your KeyMath document to be saved into, follow these steps:

Press and release the Previous thumb key twice, OR press Space with dot 1 twice. You will be prompted “Location button”. Press Enter.

You will be prompted “KeyFiles. Go to parent folder”. Press and release the Back button, OR use the Braille shortcut Space with E.

You will be prompted with the name of the first folder on your Touch’s internal storage. You are placed in the list of folders. Navigate to the folder that you want to save your KeyMath document in, and then press Enter.

You will be prompted “Go to parent folder”. Press and release the Previous thumb key, OR press Space with dot 1.

You will be prompted “Select this folder”. Now, press Enter.

You will be prompted “Edit box, enter file name”. You are placed back at the file name dialog.

If you want your KeyMath document to be saved as a Braille file with the “.brl” extension, simply type the desired name for your new document, and then press Enter.

Alternatively, if you want your KeyMath document to be saved as a Braille file with the “.brf” extension, follow these steps:

Press and release the Next thumb key, OR press Space with dot 4.

You will be prompted “.brl. File type drop down list”. Press Enter.

You will be prompted “Showing two items”. Press and release the Next thumb key, OR press Space with dot 4, until you reach the “.brf” option, and then press Enter.

Press and release the Previous thumb key, OR press Space with dot 1. You will be prompted “Edit box, enter file name”. Now, press Enter.

You can now proceed to type the desired name for your new document, and then press Enter.

After saving your document, you will be prompted with the document name and folder location as saved, and you will be placed back in the document.

Opening a KeyMath document

You can open a saved KeyMath document and review the content, export the content to KeyWord, etc.

To open a saved KeyMath document, follow these steps:

In the KeyMath Menu, type a letter O. You will be prompted “Open”. Now, press Enter.

You will be prompted “KeyFiles, xxx”, where “xxx” is the name of the first KeyMath Braille file stored in your last used folder (this will be the Documents folder, unless you have specifically selected a different folder for saving your KeyMath documents).

Navigate to the document that you want to open, and then press Enter.

You will be prompted “xxx code, loading”, followed by “blank”, where “xxx” is your selected Math Braille code. You are now placed in your existing Math Braille document

3. Inserting Math directly into a KeyWord document

KeyMath is a powerful new program introduced in the Touch version 2.0 software.

KeyMath is a real-time Braille Math application which allows you to type mathematical content directly, giving you the ability to export the Math content into a KeyWord document for reading, printing and embossing.

KeyMath also provides the ability to work with mathematical graphs and graphic objects. In this document, you will learn how to insert math content created in KeyMath directly into a KeyWord document.

There are two methods that can be used to launch KeyMath for input of math content:

  • Indirectly via KeyWord – this is the usual method where you are working in a KeyWord document and then switch to KeyMath to input your math work.
  • Directly via KeyMath – this is the alternative method where you can launch the KeyMath application directly and create a new KeyMath document.

Launching KeyMath via KeyWord

To launch KeyMath via KeyWord, follow these steps:

Once you have created or opened a document in KeyWord that you would like to put math content into, ensure that your cursor is at the point where you would like your math content to appear, and press Backspace with M.

You will be prompted “xx”, where “xx” is your current math code (UEB or Nemeth), followed by your current KeyMath mode (graphing calculator or math typesetting mode).

Note: For this exercise, ensure that you are in MathType setting mode. Pressing Enter with G will toggle you between available modes.

Note: The default Math Braille code ties in with the language of the main software version installed on your Touch. For the UK and Europe, this will be the UEB Math code. For the USA and Canada, this will be the Nemeth Math code.

You can now proceed to type the desired Math Braille into your document. You should use a number sign as usual to precede one or more numbers. All available Math signs and symbols can be typed directly into the document, or alternatively you can use the KeyMath symbol selector. To create a new line, use Enter. The visual preview will update to show the Math output each time enter is pressed, or  if you do not want to move down to the next line, you can press enter with V to update the visual preview.

The image below gives a visual idea of how the KeyMath document screen is laid out.

Inserting Math directly into a KeyWord document

The top section shows the Maths Braille as typed, with visual Braille dots.

Below this, there are two sections, arranged in columns. The left side shows the linear math content visually. The right side shows the visual math in graphical form.

For example, a Math expression that contains a fraction would be shown with the “open frac” and “close frac” text on the left side, but shown as the visually correct fraction on the right side.

Once you have entered 10 to 12 lines in KeyMath, you will need to export your visual math image to your KeyWord document. The reason you are limited to a certain number of lines is because the visual image needs to be legible when placed on a printed page.

Exporting your KeyMath document to KeyWord

You can easily export the content from your KeyMath document into KeyWord. This allows you to then print, email, or share your document using your Touch.

To export your KeyMath document to KeyWord, use the Braille shortcut Backspace with E to export the Math Braille. You will be prompted “Exported to clipboard”. You will now be placed back in your open KeyWord document. Your cursor remains exactly where it was when you pressed the Backspace with M command to enter KeyMath.

 Now, Press Backspace with V. You will be prompted “Pasted”. Your exported Math Braille content is now present in your KeyWord document. Note that the exported Math content will be readable in Braille, and you can use your Braille panning commands to move through and read the Math content in Braille. However, it cannot be read using speech, and it cannot be edited in KeyWord itself. The pasted math Braille will begin with a $ims (1-2-4-6 ims), and end with a $ime (1-2-4-6 ime) on the Braille display.

If you have exported Math Braille content from KeyMath into KeyWord, and you then decide that you need to correct an error, or add some more Math content, you will need to switch back to KeyMath, make the desired changes, and then export the content again and then switch back to KeyWord.

Note: You can have a mixture of standard text and Math Braille content inside your KeyWord document, if desired.

Note: You can have as many Math Braille images in a KeyWord document as you would like.

Note: Exported Math Braille content will be visually displayed as Braille dots within KeyWord. This is unlike regular Braille input in KeyWord, which is visually displayed as Braille dots only until the current word is completed by pressing Space, whereafter it is changed into the actual word visually. Math Braille content always stays as visual Braille dots. The exception to this is when you use the visual preview feature, where the whole document will then be displayed visually as it will appear when printed.

Launching KeyMath directly

To launch KeyMath directly, follow these steps:

From the Main Menu, type A for All Applications.

You will be prompted “All Applications”. Press Enter to open the All Applications menu.

Type a letter K as many times as required until you are prompted “KeyMath”. Now, press Enter.

You will be prompted “Create”. Press Enter to create a new KeyMath document.

You will be prompted “xx”, where “xx” is your current math code (UEB or Nemeth), followed by your current KeyMath mode (graphing calculator or math typesetting mode).

Note: For this exercise, ensure that you are in Math Type Setting mode. Pressing Enter with G will toggle you between available modes.

Note: The default Math Braille code ties in with the language of the main software version installed on your Touch. For the UK and Europe, this will be the UEB Math code. For the USA and Canada, this will be the Nemeth Math code.

You can now proceed to type the desired Math Braille into your document. You should use a number sign as usual to precede one or more numbers. All available Math signs and symbols can be typed directly into the document, or alternatively you can use the KeyMath symbol selector. To create a new line, use Enter. The visual preview will update to show the Math output each time enter is pressed, or  if you do not want to move down to the next line, you can press enter with V to update the visual preview.

The image below gives a visual idea of how the KeyMath document screen is laid out.

Inserting Math directly into a KeyWord document

The top section shows the Maths Braille as typed, with visual Braille dots.

Below this, there are two sections, arranged in columns. The left side shows the linear math content visually. The right side shows the visual math in graphical form.

For example, a Math expression that contains a fraction would be shown with the “open frac” and “close frac” text on the left side, but shown as the visually correct fraction on the right side.

Once you have entered 10 to 12 lines in KeyMath, you will need to export your visual math image to your KeyWord document. The reason you are limited to a certain number of lines is because the visual image needs to be legible when placed on a printed page.

To export your KeyMath document to KeyWord, follow these steps:

Note that you will first need to have a document open in KeyWord. You can create a brand new KeyWord document, or open an existing KeyWord document that already has content inside it.

You will need to have your Math Braille document open in KeyMath. Note that you should type all the desired Math content first in KeyMath before you export it, as the export process will export the whole document. When you have typed in all your desired math content, use the Braille shortcut Backspace with E to export the Math Braille. You will be prompted “Exported to clipboard”.

You will now need to switch to your KeyWord document. You can do this via the Recent Apps menu. Press and hold the Contextual Menu button, OR use the Braille shortcut Space with dots 2,3 and 5, to open the Recent Apps menu. Now, navigate to the KeyWord item, and press Enter. You will be placed back in your KeyWord document.

Press Backspace with V. You will be prompted “Pasted”. Your exported Math Braille content is now present in your KeyWord document. Note that the exported Math content will be readable in Braille, and you can use your Braille panning commands to move through and read the math content in Braille. However, it cannot be read using speech, and it cannot be edited in KeyWord itself. The pasted math Braille will begin with a $ims (1-2-4-6 ims), and end with a $ime (1-2-4-6 ime) on the Braille display. This stands for image start, and image end respectively.

If you have exported Math Braille content from KeyMath into KeyWord, and you then decide that you need to correct an error, or add some more math content, you will need to switch back to KeyMath, make the desired changes, and then export the content again and then switch back to KeyWord. There is a Braille shortcut command to switch directly from KeyWord to KeyMath, which is Backspace with M (alternatively, you can use the Recent Apps menu).

Note: You can have a mixture of standard text and Math Braille content inside your KeyWord document, if desired.

Note: You can have as many Math Braille images in a KeyWord document as you would like.

Note: Exported Math Braille content will be visually displayed as Braille dots within KeyWord. This is unlike regular Braille input in KeyWord, which is visually displayed as Braille dots only until the current word is completed by pressing Space, whereafter it is changed into the actual word visually. Math Braille content always stays as visual Braille dots. The exception to this is when you use the visual preview feature, where the whole document will then be displayed visually as it will appear when printed.

4. Inserting mathematical symbols / signs into your document

There are two ways of inserting mathematical symbols / signs into your document:

  • Typing the symbol using its’ Braille dot combination to directly input it into your document

OR

  • Using the Maths symbol selector to browse for the desired symbol and then input it into your document

Typing the symbol using the Braille dot combination

You can simply type the appropriate Braille dot combination to input the desired Math symbol.

Note that if you type the symbol using its’ Braille dot combination, you should ensure that you use the appropriate combination for your selected Maths Braille code. For example, if you are using the UEB Math Braille code, you can only type UEB Math symbols into your KeyMath document.

Using the KeyMath symbol selector

To use the KeyMath symbol selector, press Backspace with dots 3 and 5.

You will be prompted “Symbols list”. You are placed in the Symbols list, which contains a list of the symbol categories, as well as all the symbols themselves. The main list contains a list of the symbol categories first, followed by the individual category sections and all the symbols contained in that section.

Note that each symbol has its’ Braille dot combination shown next to its’ name, so you can make use of this as a learning and reference tool. You can memorize the dot combination for a symbol and then type it directly into your document in the future.

You can navigate through the list using your standard KeySoft navigation commands.

To select a symbol and insert it into your document, navigate to the desired symbol, and then press Enter.

Note that you can quickly jump to a specific symbol category by selecting the category name from the list at the top of the main list. You can quickly jump to the category list by pressing Space with L, then moving forwards in the list.

For example: You want to insert a symbol from the Fractions, roots, superscripts and subscripts category. In KeyMath, you press Backspace with dots 3 and 5 to open the Symbols list. You then navigate down to the “Fractions, roots, superscripts and subscripts” item, and then press Enter. You are then placed on the first symbol within this category. From here, you can navigate the list as usual.

To exit the Symbols list, press and release the Back button, OR use the Braille shortcut Space with E.

5. Inserting a graph into a KeyWord document

Make sure you are you using the Graphing calculator mode, to toggle between modes press Enter with G until you are prompted with “Graphing Calculator mode.”

Note: KeyMath will always open in the last mode you previously selected.

When Graphing calculator mode has been selected, you can now proceed to type the desired function, and then press Enter.

Note that the equation you type must be valid, and it must use the variable “y” as the vertical axis and the variable “x” as the horizontal axis.

The following are some examples of valid graphing functions in KeyMath:

  • 2x+y=4
  • x+2y=7

When you have typed your desired graphing function and pressed Enter, KeyMath will convert the function into a visual mathematical graph.

For example, the following image shows the KeyMath screen when the equation “x+2y=7” has been inputted.

Note: You will need to ensure that you write your graphing function(s) using the correct symbols and syntax for your currently selected Math Braille code (UEB / Nemeth etc).

Note: You can also press enter with v to update the visual preview of a graph without pressing enter.

Inserting a graph into a KeyWord document

Exporting your graph to KeyWord

If you have launched KeyMath via KeyWord, you can export the graph and paste it into your KeyWord document in the usual way as you would for standard mathematical content.

After you have generated your graph, press Backspace with E. You will be prompted “Moved to clipboard”.

You are now placed back in your KeyWord document. Ensure that your cursor is in the desired position. Now, press Backspace with V. Your graph will be pasted into your document.

Note: As with standard mathematical content pasted into a KeyWord document, the graph information will not be shown visually in the standard KeyWord document view.

To view the graph with a visual representation in KeyWord, press Enter with V to launch the visual preview mode.

You can then press and release the Back button, or use the Braille shortcut Space with E, to exit visual preview mode to return to your main KeyWord document.

6. Generating a tactile preview of a graph

It is possible to generate a tactile preview of a KeyMath graph. This is useful if you want to read a graph in Braille.

To generate a tactile preview of a graph, follow these steps:

You will first need to have a graph generated within KeyMath. Refer to “Inserting a graph into a KeyWord Documentfor guidance on this.

Press Space with T. You will be prompted “Tactile preview ready”, followed by “Braille image beta”.

You are now placed in the tactile preview of your graph. You can scroll through (navigate) through the various lines of your graph using the Next (far right) and Previous (far left) thumb keys.

You will be able to feel Braille characters on the display, which considered individually do not have significant value. The key idea is to consider the arrangement of each character in relation to the other characters as you scroll through the graph using the outer thumb keys. This will define a shape and gradually form a larger graphic image, such as a circle, diagonal, etc.

To comprehend the whole shape, scroll up and down to dynamically feel the whole shape. The faster that you scroll the Braille display, the more you will be able to comprehend the complete graph. It is useful to imagine that you are reading through the graph on paper one line at a time.

Note: To obtain the “y” position (vertical axis position) of a specific Braille character, press the cursor routing button above the desired character.

To exit the tactile preview mode, press and release the Back button, OR use the Braille shortcut Space with E.

You will be placed back in KeyMath.

7. Exporting a graph as a visual image

It is possible to export a KeyMath graph as a visual image to an image viewing application or gallery.

To export a graph as a visual image, follow these steps:

You will first need to have a graph generated within KeyMath. Refer to “Inserting a graph into a KeyWord Documentfor guidance on this.

Press Enter with I. The graph will now be displayed as a visual image in KeyMath. You will be prompted “Image ready”, followed by “Android system”.

You will now be placed in the Android app chooser where you can now select the desired application to use. This may vary depending on the Apps installed on your device.

At this point, the app that you choose will depend on what you wish to do with the visual graph image. If you wish to produce an embossed (hard copy Braille) image of the graph image, you can select Firebird Mobile. Alternatively, if you wish to save the image in a standard image / gallery app, you can choose a desired one.

To use Firebird Mobile for embossing the graph image, press Enter to select the Firebird Mobile option.

Note: On the very first occasion that you export a graph as a visual image and launch the Firebird Mobile app, you will need to download the required software. Note that you only have to do this on the first occasion that you export a graph as a visual image.

You will be prompted “Package not found. OpenCV Manager package was not found! Try to install it?”. Type a letter Y for Yes, and then press Enter.

You will be placed on the OpenCV Manager app page in the Google Play Store. Type a letter I twice.

You will be prompted “Install button”. Press Enter.

The OpenCV Manager app will now be downloaded and installed. You will be notified when this process is complete and the app has been successfully installed.

Press and release the Back button, or use the Braille shortcut Space with E.

You will be placed back in the Firebird Mobile app, with your graph image displayed on the screen. Note that this is the position you will be placed in for future occurrences when you generate a KeyMath graph and then export the graph image and select the Firebird Mobile app.

8. Embossing your visual graph

At this point, it is possible to emboss a Braille copy of your visual graph. The Firebird Mobile app currently supports the use of the following three embossers:

  • Phoenix Gold
  • Enabling Technologies Romeo 60
  • Enabling Technologies Juliet 120

To emboss your visual graph, follow these steps:

Ensure that your embosser is powered on. Connect a USB printer cable from the embosser to the BrailleNote’s USB port. Note that you must use a wired USB connection for embossing graphs.

Press the Next (far right) thumb key as many times as is required until you reach the embosser drop down list. Now, press Enter to open the list.

You will be prompted “Showing three items”. Press the Next (far right) thumb key OR the Previous (far left) thumb key as many times as is required until you reach your embosser model, and then press Enter to select it.

Type a letter E. You will be prompted “Emboss button”. Now, press Enter.

Your visual graph will now be embossed in Braille.

Note: You can exit the Firebird Mobile app by pressing and releasing the Back button, or by using the Braille shortcut Space with E. You will be placed back in KeyMath, with your visual graph image generated.

9. Customising a graph

KeyMath includes some options for customising your graphs. These options are located in the Graph settings submenu of the main KeyMath contextual menu.

Note that the graph settings can be changed at any point when using KeyMath, regardless of whether a graph has already been generated or not. Any changes made to the graph settings will apply immediately.

To customise your graph, follow these steps:

With KeyMath open, press and release the Contextual Menu button, OR use the Braille shortcut Space with M.

You will be prompted “Context Menu”. Type a letter G.

You will be prompted “Graph settings”. Press Enter.

You will be placed in the Graph settings menu. The Graph settings menu contains ten items which are as follows:

  • Show grid on graph
  • Polar mode
  • Degree mode
  • x axis label
  • y axis label
  • Bottom boundary
  • Top boundary
  • Left boundary
  • Right boundary
  • Show axis on tactile preview

Show grid on graph

This setting controls whether visual grid lines are displayed on KeyMath graphs. This setting is a checkbox, so can be set to On or Off.

When this setting is set to On (checked), KeyMath will show grid lines for math graphs.

When this setting is set to Off (unchecked), KeyMath will not show grid lines for maths graphs.

Polar mode

This setting controls the use of polar mode for graphs. This applies to a graph where polar mode is required. If a graph contains polar equations, this option should be set to On (enabled) to allow for polar coordinates to be displayed correctly.

When this setting is set to On (checked), KeyMath will be able to correctly represent polar equations in graphs.

When this setting is set to Off (unchecked), KeyMath will be unable to represent polar equations. If a graph contains a polar equation, it will instead be converted into standard x and y coordinates.

Degree mode

This setting controls the use of degree mode for graphs. This applies to a graph where degree mode is required. If a graph contains degree type equations, this option should be set to On (enabled) to allow for degree coordinates to be displayed correctly.

When this setting is set to On (checked), KeyMath will be able to correctly represent equations containing degrees in graphs.

When this setting is set to Off (unchecked), KeyMath will be unable to represent equations containing degrees.

X axis label

This setting controls whether the x axis (the horizontal axis) is labelled with a letter “x”. This setting is a checkbox, so can be set to On or Off.

When this setting is set to On (checked), a letter “x” will be displayed on the horizontal axis.

When this setting is set to Off (unchecked), no letter will be displayed on the horizontal axis.

Y axis label

This setting controls whether the y axis (the vertical axis) is labelled with a letter “y”. This setting is a checkbox, so can be set to On or Off.

When this setting is set to On (checked), a letter “y” will be displayed on the vertical axis.

When this setting is set to Off (unchecked), no letter will be displayed on the vertical axis.

Bottom boundary

This setting controls the bottom boundary (the lowest value) of the vertical axis. This setting is a text field. The default value for the bottom boundary is -5 (minus 5).

To change the bottom boundary, select this option. You will then be placed in a text field where you can type the desired value for the bottom boundary, using computer Braille, and then press Enter to confirm it.

Top boundary

This setting controls the top boundary (the highest value) of the vertical axis. This setting is a text field. The default value for the top boundary is 5.

To change the top boundary, select this option. You will then be placed in a text field where you can type the desired value for the top boundary, using computer Braille, and then press Enter to confirm it.

Left boundary

This setting controls the left boundary (the lowest value) of the horizontal axis. This setting is a text field. The default value for the left boundary is -5 (minus 5).

To change the left boundary, select this option. You will then be placed in a text field where you can type the desired value for the left boundary, using computer Braille, and then press Enter to confirm it.

Right boundary

This setting controls the right boundary (the highest value) of the horizontal axis. This setting is a text field. The default value for the right boundary is 5.

To change the right boundary, select this option. You will then be placed in a text field where you can type the desired value for the right boundary, using computer Braille, and then press Enter to confirm it.

Show axis on tactile preview

This setting controls whether the “x” (horizontal) and “y” (vertical) axes are included for reading in Braille when viewing a tactile preview of a graph.

This setting is a checkbox, so can be set to On or Off.

When this setting is set to On (checked), both the “x” and “y” axes will be included when reading using a tactile preview of a graph.

When this setting is set to Off (unchecked), the “x” and “y” axes will not be included in tactile previews of graphs.

10. Importing a graph

It is possible to import graphs to the BrailleNote. This feature is useful as it can provide an idea of the spatial aspect of a graph. An imported graph can be read in tactile preview mode, and it can also be embossed in Braille using the Firebird Mobile app.

To import a graph onto the BrailleNote, follow these steps:

Note that this feature is designed to work for line images / graphics containing standard lines.

You will first need to locate the desired image / graphic on a Windows computer, and save the image and open it in the Windows Paint application. In Windows Paint, save the image in the monochrome bitmap file format (.BMP), and transfer the BMP image file to the BrailleNote (note: this can be saved to the BrailleNote’s internal storage directly via computer connection, or to a USB drive or SD card).

On the BrailleNote, launch KeyMath using either of the two available methods as detailed in “Inserting Math directly into a KeyWord document”.

If you are currently using math typesetting mode, press Enter with G to switch to graphing calculator mode.

Press Enter with dots 3 and 5. You will now be placed in the last folder used on the BrailleNote. Navigate to your desired bitmap image file and select it to import it into KeyMath, and then press Enter.

You can now proceed to read a tactile preview of the image, or emboss the image via the Firebird Mobile app.

Refer to the “Generating a tactile preview of a graph ” document for guidance on reading a tactile preview of your imported image.

Refer to the “Embossing your visual graph ” document for guidance on embossing your imported image.

11. Using Math templates

KeyMath provides some useful Math templates. These are ready made Math equations and expressions which you can quickly insert into a KeyMath document.

Note: You can insert a Math template expression, and then edit the expression as desired within the document – it does not have to be left exactly as it is.

To use a Math template, follow these steps:

With a KeyMath document open, place your cursor at the desired position for inserting your Math template expression. Press Enter with dots 3 and 5.

You will be prompted with the name of the first Math template. You are placed in the template list. Press Space with dot 4 or Space with dot 1 until you reach the desired expression that you want to insert, and then press Enter to select it.

The selected expression will be inserted into your KeyMath document and you will be placed back in this document.

Note: The ready-made Math template expressions are stored as Braille files with the “.brl” extension in your selected Braille Math code subfolder within the “keyMath” folder on the Touch’s internal storage. For example, if your selected Math Braille code is UEB, the template expressions will be stored within the “UEB” subfolder of the “keyMath” folder. The available template expressions depend on your selected Braille code.

12. Performing basic calculations

The Calculator application allows you to perform basic calculations such as adding and multiplying numbers, as well as more advanced calculations.

Refer to “Performing advanced calculations ” for guidance on using these.

When you select the Calculator option from the Main Menu, you are immediately placed in the main Calculator screen and you can start to perform calculations straight away.

Note: When using the Calculator application, you do not need to input number signs for number entry or functions.

The main mathematical operators are as follows:

  • Plus – dots 3,4,6
  • Minus – dots 3 and 6
  • Multiplication – dots 1 and 6
  • Divided by – dots 3 and 4
  • Equals – Enter
  • To clear the calculator – Space with dots 3,5,6
  • Decimal point – dots 4 and 6

Note that the Calculator application acts in the same way as a standard calculator. The mathematical operators use the same order of precedence as a standard calculator.

Example 1:

To perform the calculation “3 plus 2” –

Type the number 3, then use dots 3,4,6 for the plus operator, and then type the number 2. Finally, press Enter to perform the calculation. The result of the calculation, which is 5, will be spoken and also displayed in Braille.

Example 2:

To perform the calculation “5 multiplied by 8” –

Type the number 5, then use dots 1 and 6 for the multiplication (times) operator, and then type the number 8. Finally, press Enter to perform the calculation. The result of the calculation, which is 40, will be spoken and also displayed in Braille.

13. Performing advanced calculations

In addition to the basic calculations, you can also perform more advanced calculations and mathematical functions using the Calculator application.

Note: When using the Calculator application, you do not need to input number signs for number entry or functions. The Calculator recognizes that you are in a mode where numbers are being used.

You will need to use Computer Braille in the Calculator.

You can make use of the Contextual Menu whilst in the Calculator. The Contextual Menu shows the advanced calculations and functions that you can use. Some advanced calculations can be performed using Braille shortcuts as well as through the Contextual Menu, whilst some can only be performed by locating and selecting the function through the Contextual Menu. The Contextual Menu acts as a useful way of learning the available Braille shortcuts, whilst also being able to actually perform the calculation / function through the menu.

When you are using the Calculator and you open the Contextual Menu, all available functions will be shown in a list. Functions that can be performed using Braille shortcuts will have the shortcut shown after the function name, for example “Pi – Space with Y”.

To open the Contextual Menu whilst using the Calculator, simply press and release the Contextual Menu button, or use the Braille shortcut Space with M.

Trigonometric functions

The Touch supports the three trigonometric functions – Sine, Cosine and Tangent.

These functions do not have Braille shortcuts, so you will need to select them for use in the Contextual Menu.

Natural log

The Natural log function can be found in the Contextual Menu.

Logarithm

The Logarithm function can be found in the Contextual Menu.

Log Euler’s Number

The Log Euler’s Number function can be found in the Contextual Menu.

Pi

The Pi function can be found in the Contextual Menu. Alternatively, use the Braille shortcut Space with Y.

Power

The Power function can be found in the Contextual Menu. Alternatively, use the Braille shortcut Space with dots 4 and 5.

Factorial

The Factorial function can be found in the Contextual Menu. Alternatively, use the Braille shortcut Space with dots 2,3,4 and 6.

Square root

The Square root function can be found in the Contextual Menu. Alternatively, use the Braille shortcut Space with dots 3,4 and 5.

Percent

The percent operator can be found in the Contextual Menu. Alternatively, use dots 1,4 and 6.

Note: For guidance on using the basic mathematical operators in the Calculator, refer to “Performing basic calculations”.

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